Author Archive for

15
十月
09

不要老想發展綠色新能源

專題報導 04/01/2009

energy美國是世界能源消耗大國,開發綠色新能源,一直高唱入雲。一些能源專家卻指出,光是改善原本工業與發電廠的能源效率,就比開發綠色能源更能節省能源,減少污染,而且立可見效。

 

 隱身於美國西維吉尼亞州卡諾瓦河河谷,查爾斯頓市上游大約五十公里處的合金廠,是該州用電量第二大的客戶。這座合金廠每天從配電網取用超過一億兩千萬瓦的電力,輸向廠內五座電弧爐,將石英加熱到約攝氏一千五百度,以生產高品質的矽,用來製造電腦晶片、太陽能電池等產品。

 然後合金廠會將電弧爐內溫度達攝氏八百度的廢氣,連同其中包含的許多原生能源,從煙囪噴翻出去。

倡導節約工業能源已有三十年歷史的企業家卡斯頓 (Thomas Casten) 表示,很不幸的是西維吉尼亞合金廠並非特例。世界各地的消費者使用經濟型螢光燈管、隔熱建材與汽電混合車,已經朝向個人能源的節約,但是包括許多發電廠在內,工業界繼續以令人驚愕的速率在浪費能源。由於能源生產成本低廉,一般來說設計工業製程的人既沒有本事,也欠缺經濟動機去節約能源。

現在,西維吉尼亞的合金廠已經成為一小群數量持續增加,試圖改變浪費習性的公司之一。到二○一一年之前,西維吉尼亞的合金廠,會安裝由卡斯頓在二○○六年共同創建,美國伊利諾州魏斯特蒙市「再生能源發展公司」 (RED)的設備,將合金廠廢棄熱能轉為電力,總計可轉化超過四千萬瓦,這足以減少合金廠三分之一的電力消耗。

卡斯頓說像這樣的機會俯拾即是。全世界有大約三百座矽工廠,全都可以比照辦理。鋼鐵廠也是一樣,美國半數的鋼鐵是用電弧爐處理回收廢鐵製成的,每座電弧爐可再生大約一千五百萬瓦的電力。至於製造輪胎的過程中,需要用到大量黑炭,做為強化橡膠的觸媒,而黑炭是由部分燃燒焦油製成的,浪費掉的熱能可以產生大約十億瓦的電力。

麻省理工學院二十一世紀能源研究中心機械工程師葛寧恩 (Ahmed Ghoniem) 表示,就環境保護來說,改良傳統燃料使用方式的能源效率,比起推動廣泛應用再生能源,可說毫不遜色。他說,世界大約百分之八十五的能源,是燃燒化石燃料,所以若能增加百分之二十的能源效率(他強調「這並非遙不可及」),所能減少的溫室氣體污染與排放量,就跟全球「綠色」能源加一倍相當,而那需要好幾年甚至好幾十年才可望達成。卡斯頓則表示,光是美國一地,能源再生就可抵上大約兩千億瓦的電力,這大約相當全美總電力的五分之一。

 而要達成這項目標,就必須穿越由科技議題、成本、國家能源政策,以及執掌發電事務的複雜管制結構所構成的龐大迷宮。卡斯頓說,要把這一切全兜在一起,異乎尋常地複雜。

 日新月異

 對卡斯頓的公司以及其他從事能源再生工作的人來說,好消息是有愈來愈多的潛在客戶開始留意此事。去年夏天油價一波飆漲,無論眼前油價可能會如何探底,大家還是相信能源價格別無去路,只會一路爬升。

 壞消息則是成本高昂。把再生廢棄熱能的設備,整合到並非為此設計的工廠內,價碼會把潛在客戶給嚇傻了。整合到西維吉尼亞合金廠內的設備,花費大約要一億美元,這就是為什麼卡斯頓的公司在這個案例中,不但提供安裝節能系統的專業技能,也一併負擔其費用,交換條件是合金廠同意與其共享利益。卡斯頓說,工廠經理並不具備解決這項挑戰的知識,如果他們想自己來,會高估風險,卻低估了報酬。

 儘管如此,技術本身倒是直截了當,廢熱能轉化成電力的方式,跟大多數發電廠製造電力的方式完全一樣。標準電廠會先從某種主要來源取得熱能,包括煤、天然氣、生質燃料、濃縮鈾、甚至是聚合太陽光,然後用熱能把水蒸發成高壓蒸氣;接著把蒸汽導入渦輪機,這基本上就是一組經過排列的高科技風扇葉片,由於蒸汽前推的力量而轉動。渦輪機的轉軸帶動發電機,從而製造出電力;從遠端噴出的蒸汽則會通過冷卻器,再度凝結回液態水。

 這套以十九世紀設計這套做法蘇格蘭工程師蘭金 (William Rankine) 命名的「蘭金循環」,是一種將溫度差轉化為有用電力,既實用又有效的方法。但是法國工程師卡諾 (Sadi Carnot) 於一八二四年指出,蘭金循環的效率有其基本限制,溫差愈大,最大效率也就愈高,所以工程師經常提到「高品質熱能」,指的就是熱能來源的溫度比周遭環境高出許多的情況。

 然而無論科技多麼精良,總會有一些熱能遺留下來,以蘭金循環來說,主要就是蒸汽凝結回液態水的過程中,浪費掉的能量。理論上只要還有一些溫度差,就能夠從殘留的熱能中再榨出一些機械能,但是葛寧恩說,由於殘留的熱能品質較低,通常你必須再多用點力才能榨出能量。

 這就是為什麼能源再生公司優先要追求高品質熱能。比方說在西維吉尼亞合金廠,電弧爐排放出來溫度攝氏八百度的廢氣熱能,就會用來蒸發水,然後透過標準蘭金循環系統製造電力。卡斯頓說還有很多其他的範例,他很清楚地記得有一回他訪問位於美國內華達州的一間石灰工廠,廠房內有巨大的柱狀窯爐,石灰石、碎狀煤跟氧氣不斷地送進去加工,熱度在三十呎外都能感覺到。熔礦業和冶煉業等大型工業,通常都會排放出這樣的熱能,除了加熱周遭的空氣,毫無他用。

高品質熱能固然很誘人,不過化工業、造紙業等許多數不清的產業,廢棄不用的低品質熱能,也有很多可以回收使用的機會。再生能源發展公司看準了烘乾石膏板清水牆所用的多孔爐,烘乾所用的能源佔製作石膏板成本的八成。多孔爐排出廢氣的溫度不到攝氏兩百度,用在以水為本的蘭金循環裡,幾乎毫無效率可言。不過現在可以用氟氯烷、丙烷或丁烷等揮發性液體來代替水,購買這種時下熱賣的蘭金循環系統,就能夠從差距不大的溫差中獲得機械能。

高科技領域也同時在研發,以固態熱電材料為主,直接以溫度差發電的廢熱能回收系統。加州理工學院材料科學家史尼德 (Jeff Snyder) 表示,商業上使用的熱電裝置,對於設定的溫差可達到到百分之十五到二十的卡諾效率,比起蘭金裝置既無效率又較昂貴。不過熱電發電機體積小巧,也沒有活動的組件,汽車產業就很愛用。比方說寶馬跟福斯汽車,就雙雙發表了利用引擎廢氣熱能發電的原型系統。

研究員還在開發較奇特的化學合成材質。史尼德說熱能若流通整塊材質,就流失掉了,而這些材質具備奈米結構,以減低熱傳導度,降低熱能流動的速度,能夠更容易捕捉到這些熱能。像這樣的系統也許無法在工廠裡跟蘭金循環系統一較高下,但是只花費數百美元,把熱電發電機裝在汽車上,還是很值得考慮的。

【知識通訊評論月刊七十八期】2009.04.01

http://k-review.com.tw/2009/04/01/774/#more-774

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24
九月
09

Invading the Vintage

July 15, 2009 · 4 Comments

What do you think?

Invading the Vintage is a series where Franco Brambilla takes brilliantly retro photographs and forces them into the ‘future’. Ok so it is not exactly like, that but you will understand what I mean by looking at the images. I love these but of course it is hard to seeing them without referencing Meatscapes in my mind. Maybe it is originality which is now retro?

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Categories: Just strange
Tagged: invading, the, vintage

24
九月
09

Purification Bathroom

Jun Yasumoto designer

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Phyto-Purification Bathroom

 Using a natural filtering principle called phyto-purification, the bathroom becomes a mini-eco-system by recycling and regenerating the wastewater.

The water from the shower and the washbasin is filtered through an organic system before being re-used.

Phyto-purification is a natural water-recycling process which is commonly used in ecological purification systems.

24
九月
09

Matchbox / Allard Architecture

15.Apr 2009

By Nico Saieh — Filed under: Featured , Hotels and Restaurants , Offices , Allard Architecture, Concrete, Mixed Use, Netherlands, Prefabricated

436820110_76-matchbox-090211-01-a4-allard-architecture-528x373

Allard Architects shared with us Matchbox, their latest building in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, that just got approved by the Amsterdam Aesthetics Committee. Completion expected for December 2010.

Architect’s description and more images after the break.704561843_section-528x440

The Matchbox building will be made of prefabricated concrete. The bent faces of the cantilevering boxes are constructed in prefabricated concrete walls. The hang not on a structural core but on the structural shear walls. This effect completes shape of the stacked boxes. Use of steel in this building structure is minimised. Except the internal light non-structural walls have a galvanized steel finish. In their interior this enabling tenants to use the wall to pin up their work using magnets. The black frames around the boxes are constructed in folded aluminium elements glued on stiff insulation. Frames are shoved over the edges of the concrete floor. All the other grey coloured exterior surfaces are sealed with a seamless Poly-Urethane finish, spray on.

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The project got slightly slowed down by the financial issues last autumn. But at this moment, due to private investors’ faith, the process is fully ongoing. This positive faith was created by good control concerning the building costs, lowering the costs for future rent. City councillors and the local project office ‘Noordwaarts’ for the neighbourhood showed many positive responses, wanting the Matchbox to boost up the energy in the area. All to keep supporting the creative industries in this trendy neighbourhood. Remarkable is the fact that the Amsterdam committee for building aesthetics recently approved the whole plan for the Matchbox building, including its cantilevers. Building completion is expected on December 2010.

Credits:

Everything in this process is kept within its limits also the advisors’ team, all to keep on going and realize this extraordinary project in Amsterdam. Dutch companies as Van Rossum is on structural engineering, DGMR and LaRotonda are responsible for building regulations. The Allard Architecture office is based in Amsterdam. Allard’s co-workers in the architectural team are Jurriën Boon, Daniël Bakker and Cruz Garcia Santiago.

Gross Floor Area: 6,400 sqm
Bldg. Scale: 22 business units between 80 sqm and 250 sqm Rooftop restaurant with rooftop terrace.
Building Cost Estimate: €7.040.000
Design Team : Allard Meine Jansen- bna- architect director, Jurriën Boon-project Architect, Daniël Baker-technical manager, Cruz Garcia Santiago, Jennifer Gauthier, Roderick van der Weiden, Jeroen Linnenbank, Jan Nauta
Design Office: Allard Architecture b.v.
Structure: Van Rosssum Raadgevende Ingenieurs
Max.Height: 24m
parking lots: Parking garage 1,150 m² (40 parking spaces)
Exterior Finish: Seamless Sprayed Polyurethane
Completion period: December 2010 

24
九月
09

National Library in Astana, Kazakhstan / BIG

25.Aug 2009

By David Basulto — Filed under: Awarded Competitions , Featured , Museums and Libraries , BIG, Kazakhstan

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BIG was recently awarded with the first prize on an open international design competition for  Kazakhstan’s new National Library in Astana.

The new building has an area of  33.000 sqm, arranged as a continuous circulation on a Möbius Strip, as the result of 2 interlocking structures: the perfect circle and the public spiral. The sections (see below) clearly show how the horizontal program shifts to a vertical configuration,  combining vertical hierarchy, horizontal connectivity and diagonal view lines. The skin, which changes from wall to roof as the strip develops. It sounds a bit complicated, but the sections and diagrams explain this pretty well, and you can get the idea on how the spaces and diagonal views relate on the renderings. In short words, a clear lineal organization (ideal for an archive, library) is mixed with an infinite loop.

“What is a library but an efficient archive of books… and a path for the public to reach them” (Thomas Christoffersen, Project Leader)

This shape also looks forward to become a symbol for the nation: “the circle, the rotunda, the arch and the yurt are merged into the form of a Moebius strip. The clarity of the circle, the courtyard of the rotunda, the gateway of the arch and the soft silhouette of the yurt are combined to create a new national monument appearing local and universal, contemporary and timeless, unique and archetypal at the same time” (Bjarke Ingels).

But once again, BIG diagram´s are way better to explain this than my words. See the diagrams, sections and renderings after the break: 

BIG was recently awarded with the first prize on an open international design competition for  Kazakhstan’s new National Library in Astana.

The new building has an area of  33.000 sqm, arranged as a continuous circulation on a Möbius Strip, as the result of 2 interlocking structures: the perfect circle and the public spiral. The sections (see below) clearly show how the horizontal program shifts to a vertical configuration,  combining vertical hierarchy, horizontal connectivity and diagonal view lines. The skin, which changes from wall to roof as the strip develops. It sounds a bit complicated, but the sections and diagrams explain this pretty well, and you can get the idea on how the spaces and diagonal views relate on the renderings. In short words, a clear lineal organization (ideal for an archive, library) is mixed with an infinite loop.

“What is a library but an efficient archive of books… and a path for the public to reach them” (Thomas Christoffersen, Project Leader)

This shape also looks forward to become a symbol for the nation: “the circle, the rotunda, the arch and the yurt are merged into the form of a Moebius strip. The clarity of the circle, the courtyard of the rotunda, the gateway of the arch and the soft silhouette of the yurt are combined to create a new national monument appearing local and universal, contemporary and timeless, unique and archetypal at the same time” (Bjarke Ingels).

But once again, BIG diagram´s are way better to explain this than my words. See the diagrams, sections and renderings after the break:

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Typology

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Diagram 

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Program

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Circulations

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6th floor plan

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 North-south section 

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Architect: BIG
Client: Kazakhstan Presidential Office
Collaborators: ARUP AGU
Size: 33.000 M2
Location: Astana, Kazakhstan
Partner-in-Charge: Bjarke Ingels
Project Leader: Thomas Christoffersen
Team: Amy Campbell, Jakob Henke, Johan Cool, Jonas Barre, Daniel Sundlin

24
九月
09

Solar Forest Charging System for Parking Lots

by Mike Chino, 07/27/09

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Although electric vehicle use is on the rise, we’re certainly not out of the woods yet in terms of providing them with a steady supply of clean energy – that’s why designer Neville Mars has conceived of an incredible EV charging station that takes the form of an evergreen glade of solar trees. His photovoltaic grove serves a dual function, acting as a go-to source for clean renewable energy while providing a shady spot for cars to park as they charge.

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Each of the trees in Neville Mars’s solar forest is composed of a set of photovoltaic leaves mounted on an elegantly branching poll. The base of each trunk features an power outlet that can be used to juice up your eco ride as you run errands.

Neville told Inhabitat that the tree and leaf design wasn’t a goal but came naturally as they tried to maximize the shaded surface that the structures provide. Although the efficiency of overlapping photovoltaic panels initially raised some concerns, Neville went on to explain that the leaves rotate with the sun to ensure maximum efficiency. The solar forest is certainly an aesthetic step up from your standard sun-baked concrete parking lot, and serves as great inspiration for integrating solar technology with natural forms. 




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